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浙江大学2014年考博英语真题及解析04
时间:2017-05-25 10:53  来源:学苑考博  作者:学苑考博  点击:
Do we need laws that prevent us from running risks with our lives? If so, then perhaps laws are needed prohibiting the sale of cigarettes and alcoholic drinks. Both products have been known to kill people. The hazards of drinking too much al

Do we need laws that prevent us from running risks with our lives? If so, then perhaps laws are needed prohibiting the sale of cigarettes and alcoholic drinks. Both products have been known to kill people. The hazards of drinking too much alcohol are as bad or worse than the hazards of smiking too many cigarettes. All right then, let's pass a law closing the liquor stores and the bars in this country. Let's put an end once and for all to the ruinous disease from which as many as 10 million Americans currently suffer--alcoholism.
    But wait. We've already tried that. For 13 years, between 1920 and 1933, there were no liquor stores anywhere in the United States. They were shut down abilished by an amendment to the Constitution and by a law of Congress. After January 20, 1920, there was supposed to be no more manyfacturing, selling, or transporting of "intoxicating liquors". Without any more liquor, people could not drink it. And if they did not drink it, how could they get drunk? There would be no more dangers to the public welfare from drunkenness and alcoholism. It was all bery logical. And yet prohibition of liquor, beer, and wine did not work. Why?
   Because, law or no law, millions of people still liked to drink alcohol. And they were willing to take risks to get it. They were not about to change their tastes and habits just because of a change in the law. And gans of liquor smugglers millions of gallons of the outlawed beverages across the Canadian and Mexican borders. Drinkers were licky to know of an illegal bar that served Mexican or Canadian liquor. Crime and drunkenness were both supposed to decline as a rusult of prohibition. Instead, people drank nore alcohol than ever-often poisoned alcohol.

1. Which of the following was NOT characteristic reason for the proposal of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act?  __A__
a) There would be no further danger to the public from alcoholism.
b) There would be a rise in the cost of alcoholic beverages.
c) Without liquor, people would not drink.
d) People would not become drunk of create a public nuisance.

2. During Prohibition, illegal alcohol was __C__.
a) sold openly
b) no longer a temptation
c) a major factor in the passage of the Volstead Act
d) brought across the Mexican and Canadian borders

3. During Prohibition, people __B__.
a) lived in fear of the law
b) were willing to risk arrest for the pleasure of liquor
c) recklessly endangered their comunities
d) were respectful of the legal sanctions placed on them

4. When enacting the prohibition law, government officials assumend that __D__.
a) every American would buy alcohol illegally
b) all criminal activities would cease
c) patrols of the Canadian border would halt the sale of alcohol
d) the social threat from drunkerness would decline

5. It can be inferred from the passage that __A__.
a) the Congress was wise to repeal Prohibition
b) the Prohibition Era was characterized by a decrease in crime and drunkenness
c) during Prohibition, most Americans stopped drinking
d) laws should be passed to ban the sale of alcoholic beverages
 
As people continue to grow and age, our body systems continue to change. At a certain point in your life, your body system began to weaken. Your joint may become stiff. It may become more difficult for you to see and hear. The slow change of aging causes our bodies to lose some of their ability to bounce back from disease and injury. In order to live longer, we have always tried to slow or stop this process that leads us toward the end of our lives.
Many factors contribute to your health. A well-balanced diet plays an important role. The amount and type of exercises you get is another factor. Your living environment and the amount of stress you are under is yet another. But scientists studying senescence want to know: Why do people grow old? They hope that by examining the aging process on a cellular level medical science may be able to extend the length of life.
There is nothing to be afraid of as old age approaches. Many consider the later portions of life to be the best time for living. Physical activity may lessen, but often you gain a broader understanding of yourself and the world.
What we consider old age now may only be middle-aged someday soon. Who knows with so many advances in medical science happening so quickly, life spans may one day be measured in centuries, rather than in years!
1. When people become aging, they will lose some of their ability to bounce back from disease and injury, “bounce back” here means __A__.
A. to improve in health after one‟s disease and injury   B. to run fast
C. to recover from disease and injury   D. to jump after recovering
2. In order to live longer, __A__.
A. we should postpone the process of aging   B. we should try to do some exercise
C. we have to try to be on a diet   D. we should keep in high spirits
3. Why are some scientists interested in studying senescence? __B__
A. They may be able to find better ways to our life
B. If they pin down the biochemical process that makes us age, there will be hope for extending the length of life
C. They want find out if there is a link between how efficiently a cell could repair itself and how long a creature lives
D. They want to increase the general ability of our bodies
4. Many consider the later portions of life to be the best time of living, because __A__.
A. they have a very good understanding of themselves and the outside world
B. they have nothing to do all day long only to watch their grandchildren growing up around them
C. they have come through the battle of life safely
D. they consider their life has been a successful one
5. According to the passage, “spans” means __B__.
A. a long period of time   B. a length of time
C. a long distance from one place to another   D. longevity
 
翻译
2013年12月份以来,中国25个省份、100多座大中城市再次遭遇雾霾侵袭。北京、上海、南京等相继沦陷为雾霾重灾区,湖北、浙江、湖南、江苏、安徽等地雾霾天创下历史纪录。国家气象局数据显示,今年以来中国平均雾霾天数已经创出52年来之最。
虽然政府部门采取了工业企业关停减产的措施应对雾霾肆虐,但收效甚微,雾霾正在对人们的生活产生越来越多的负面效应:学校停课、汽车限行、高速封闭。而更让有关部门尴尬的是,制造出雾霾的空气污染物来源,目前仍然是一个迷。
自京津冀频繁发生雾霾起,几年过去了,对于其形成的具体原因暂无定论。大多数的专家给 出答案,重污染天气形成的主要原因有二:污染物排放总量过大和不利气象条件。具体看来,长三角周边更多为化工、水泥等企业,其工业废气组成更为复杂。
当然,问题的复杂性从来不是延缓解决方案的借口。在历经了京津冀地区的雾霾恐慌后,今年9月国务院出台了《大气污染防止行动计划》,涉及包括京津冀、长三角和珠三角在内的重点控制区的水泥、化工等六大重污染行业以及燃煤工业锅炉的新建项目。
从目前学界的研究来看,PM2.5的治理绝非易事。这样的长期计划要先布局,再行动,最后是对企业发力。
类比国外相关案例,上个世纪四五十年,无论是代洛杉矶雾霾爆还是伦敦雾霾事件,最后都是在政府和企业合力后,达成协议,最后以《清洁空气法》等法案的形式完成监督。


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