官网首页  咨询热线:400-621-8199
当前位置: 学苑考博 > 考博资料 > 考博真题 >
浙江大学2014年考博英语真题及解析03
时间:2017-05-25 10:52  来源:学苑考博  作者:学苑考博  点击:
阅读 In the same way that a child must be able to move his arms and legs before he can learn to walk, the child must physiologically be capable of producing and experiencing particular emotions before these emotions can be modified throug

阅读
In the same way that a child must be able to move his arms and legs before he can learn to walk, the child must physiologically be capable of producing and experiencing particular emotions before these emotions can be modified through learning. psychologists have found that there are two basic processes by which learning takes place. one kind of learning is called "classical conditioning". this occurs when one event or stimulus is consistently paired with, or followed by, a reward or punishment, it is through classical conditioning that a child learns to associate his mother's face and voice with happiness and love, for he learns that this person provides food and comfort. negative emotions are learned in a similar fashion.
The second kind of learning is called "operant conditioning." this occurs when an individual learns to do things that produce rewards in his environment and learns not to do things that produce punishments. for example, if a mother always attends to her baby when he cries and cuddles him until he is quiet, she may teach him that if he cries he will get attention from mother. thus, the baby will learn to increase his crying in order to have his mother more.
Every day, we grow and have new experiences. we constantly learn by reading, watching television, interacting with some people, and so forth. this learning affects our emotions. why is it that we learn to like some people and dislike others? if a person is nice to us, cares about us, we learn to associate this person with positive feelings, such as joy, happiness, and friendliness. on the other hand, if a person is mean to us, does not care about us, and even deliberately does things to harm us, we learn to associate this person with negative feelings, such as unhappiness, discomfort, and anger.

1. the author's main purpose in writing the passage is to _B_.
a) teach children how to learn to produce and experience certain emotion
b) give the general reader an account of two basic kinds of learning
c) give parents some advice on how to modify their children's emotions through learning
d) discuss with psychologist how positive and negative feelings are produced
2.if your jokes often find already echo in a person, you will learn though _B_ that telling jokes to this person is fun, and you will try with greater efforts to be humorous in his presence.
a) classical conditioning
b) operant conditioning
c) neither of them
d) some other sorts of conditioning
3. if a child is bitten or startled several times by a dog, he may learn to associate furry animals with pain or startle and thus develop a fear of furry animals. this is a typical example of learning through _A_.
a) classical conditioning
b) operant conditioning
c) both of them
d) neither of them
4. in the third paragraph, the author is _D_.
a) discussing how we grow and have new experiences every day
b) talking about learning to modify emotions through operant conditioning
c) concentrating on learning by reading, watching television, interacting with people, and so on
d) using examples to further illustrate learning through classical conditioning
5. in the following paragraphs the author will most probably go on to discuss __C_.
a) definitions of positive feelings and negative feelings
b) the third kind of learning
c) further examples of learning through operant conditioning
d) none of the above
 
Any country has good reason to want its citizens to be as healthy as possible, since one of its greatest resources is an active population. No country wants its people to suffer unnecessarily from ill health. 
This was the kind of thinking which led to the introduction of a health service in many countries. In Britain this has developed into a “Welfare State” in which all citizens, rich and poor alike, can get most health treatment free. The money for this is partially raised by contributions from employers and employees.
As three decades have shown, such automatic arrangements are not always ideal and there are arguments for and against the Health Service. The number of patients treated every year and the cost of treatment are much greater than was estimated. This means that the people who work for the Health Service—doctors, nurses and other hospital staff—have much more routine work to do and as a result they have little time for preventive medicine. The Health Service does need more staff—a need that can only be met if more money is made available to it. 
However, a powerful argument for the Health Service is that many people are able to receive expensive treatment which they could never afford themselves. Sometimes this free treatment is abused and people visit their doctors when they don’t really need to. Because they have so many patients, doctors cannot spend as long with each one as they would like, and some people prefer to pay for private treatment so that their doctors can give them more time. In fact, some wealthy people feel that they should pay, and so free more money for treatment to others. 
46. In the author’s view, Britain is a Welfare State in that __A__. 
A. all citizens are entitled to a free medical treatment in some sense 
B. poor, unlike the rich, could enjoy free medical treatment 
C. health service is highly developed in Britain 
D. Britain doesn’t allow its people to suffer unnecessarily from ill health 
47. We can infer from the passage that __B__. 
A. the Health Service is introduced to many other countries by Britain 
B. the Health Service has been introduced and developed for 30 years in Britain 
C. an active population is the greatest resource in Britain 
D. all citizens in Britain have a good opinion of the Health Service 
48. The best title for the passage would be __D__. 
A. A Welfare State 
B. Importance of the Health Service 
C. Disadvantages of the Health Service 
D. The Health Service 
49. The author mentions that some wealthy people prefer to pay for private treatment because __C__. 
A. their doctors can give them more time leave from work 
B. those doctors have better medical instruments 
C. they might save some money for the poor 
D. their doctors have a stronger sense of responsibility for the patients
50. The word “abused” (Par. 4) means __B__. 
A. destroyed 
B. used in wrong way 
C. ignored 
D. wasted


(责任编辑:学苑考博)

热门课程精选
全国分校
  • 北 京
    地 址:北京海淀区海淀区苏州街55号名商大厦10层1002室
    电 话:010-82502102 82509965 82503201
  • 广 州
    地 址:广州天河区五山路141-2号尚德大厦A座1317室
    电 话:020-37392074 37392134 37392104
  • 南 京
    地 址:南京市中山南路49号商茂世纪广场22层D1座
    电 话:025-86898700 86898702 86898291
考博英语微信

加入QQ群

热门推荐