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中国科学院2003年考博英语真题(三)
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  中国科学院2003年考博英语真题(三)

  Passage 4

  Abortion. The word alone causes civil conversation to flee the room. This is largely because the pro-choice and pro-life positions are being defined by their extremes, by those who scream accusations instead of arguments.

  More reasonable voices and concerns, on both sides of the fence, are given little attention.

  For example, prolife extremists seem unwilling to draw distinctions between some abortions and others, such as those resulting from rape with an underage child. They would make no exception in the recent real-life case of a woman who discovered in her fifth month that her baby would be bom dead due to severe disabilities.

  On the other hand, pro-choice extremists within feminism insist on holding inconsistent positions. The pregnant woman has an unquestionable right to abort, they claim. Yet if the biological father has no say whatsoever over the woman's choice, is it reasonable to impose legal obligations upon him for child support? Can absolute legal obligation adhere without some son of corresponding legal rights?

  The only hope for progress in the abortion dialogue lies in the great excluded middle, in the voices of average people who see something wrong with a young girl forced to bear the baby of a rapist.

  Any commentary on abortion should include a statement of the writer's position, I represent what seems to be a growing "middle ground" in pro-choice opinion. Legally, 1 believe in the right of every human being to medically control everything under his or her own skin. Many things people have a legal right to do, however, seem clearly wrong to me: adultery, lying to friends, walking past someone who is bleeding on the street. Some forms of abortion fall into that category. Morally speaking, my doubts have become so extreme that I could not undergo the procedure past the first three months and 1 would attempt to dissuade friends from doing so.

  Partial-birth abortion has thrown many pro-choice advocates into moral chaos. I find it impossible to view photos of late-term abortion—the fetus's contorted features, the tiny fully formed hands, the limbs ripped apart—without experiencing nausea. This reaction makes me ineffectual in advocating the absolute right to abortion. 1 stand by

  tlie principle, "a woman's body, a woman's right" but I don't always like myself for do ing so.

  Fanatics on both sides are using reprehensible and deceitful tactics. An honest dialogue on abortion must start by re-setting the stage, by denouncing the approaches that block communication.

  74. According to the passage, the pro-life and pro-choice positions on abortion are

  A. complementary to each other

  B. opposed to each other

  C. similar in nature

  D. reconcilable in a way

  75. To a pro-life extremist, .

  A. all babies should be carried to term

  B. babies resulting from rape should not be bom

  C. deformed babies can be aborted when detected

  D. an underage girl has no right to give birth

  76. According to the pro-choice position,_____

  A. a pregnant woman cannot abort her baby if its father agrees to keep it

  B. a pregnant woman has an absolute right of choice over an abortion

  C. the baby's father also has a say over its mother's choice of abortion

  D. the baby's father has an unalienable obligation to support the baby

  77, Who would insist that the baby be born whether or not it is the child of a rapist?

  A. the author

  B. average people

  C. a pro-choice advocate

  D. a pro-life extremist

  78. The author doubts the legal right to lie to friends as well as the one to

  A. abort a fetus in its fifth month

  B. view the photos of late-term abortion

  C. give birth to a baby in one's teenage

  D. dispose of whatever under one's skin

  79. The author, as a "middle ground" person,___________ .

  A. actually holds a mild pro-life opinion

  B. proposes that a rapist's baby never be born

  C. advocates a serious dialogue on abortion

  D. denies the principle "a woman's body, a woman's right"

  Passage 5

  In the absence of optimism, we are left with nothing but critics, naysayers, and prophets of doom. When a nation expects the worst from its people and institutions, and its experts focus exclusively on faults, hope dies. Too many people spend too much time looting down rather than up, Finding fault with their country's political institutions, economic system, educational establishment, religious organizations, and—worst of all—with each other.

  Faultfinding expends so much negative energy that nothing is left over for positive action. It takes courage and strength to solve the genuine problems that afflict every society. Sure, there will always be things that need fixing. But the question is, Do you want to spend your time and energy tearing things down or building them up?

  The staging of a Broadway show could illustrate my point. Let's say a new production is about to open, A playwright has polished the script, investors have put up the money, and the theater has been rented, A director has been chosen, actors have been auditioned and selected, and the cast has been rehearsing for weeks. Set, lighting, and sound engineers have been hard at work. By the time opening night arrives, nearly a hundred people have labored tirelessly—all working long hours to make magic for iheir audience.

  On opening night, four or five critics sit in the audience, [f they pan it, the play will probably close in a matter of days or weeks. If they praise it, the production could go on for a long and successful run. In the end, success or failure might hinge on the opinion of a single person—someone who might be in a bad mood on opening night! What's wrong with this scene? In one sense, nothing. Critics have a legitimate role. The problem arises when we make critics our heroes or put them in control of our fate. When we empower the critic more than the playwright, something is wrong. It is much easier to criticize than to create. When we revere the critics of society, we eventually become a society of critics, and when that happens, there is no room left for constructive optimism.

  80. According to the author, critics usually .

  A. ignore minor imperfections

  B. overemphasize flaws

  C. see both sides of a coin

  D. pin their hopes on improvements

  81. It can be inferred from the text that if optimism were adopted, .

  A, no serious problems would arise in society

  B, anything could be done with ease

  C. some social problems could more possibly be solved

  D. people would succeed in getting over all the obstacles

  52. The preparation of a Broadway show is mentioned in order to .

  A. explain that staging a play requires complex teamwork

  B. argue that a minute mistake may ruin a lifelong task

  C. show that the preparatory stage is imperative to the following ones

  D. illustrate that criticism may block the way to success

  83. Compared with the playwrights, the critics are, according to the author,

  A. pretentious rather than honest

  B. arrogant rather than modest

  C- cruel rather than merciful

  D, destructive rather than constructive

  84. What might be the ultimate result of a biased bitter criticism?

  A. more rebellion

  B. more creativity

  C. less initiative

  D. less destruction

  85. The main idea of this passage is .

  A. the destructive role of utter pessimism

  B. achieving success regardless of criticism

  C. no cracking down, no building up

  D. one should learn to handle stresses

  PAPER TWO

  PART V TRANSLATION (30 minutes, 10 points)

  Directions: Read (he following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your pieces of Chinese version in the proper space on your Answer Sheet II.

  Are you really in love? How do you know the difference between love and infatuation? This is often difficult to determine, for there are no set rules surrounding the definitions of love or infatuation. Romantic love is very much a part of the American way of life and many expect that some day "it" is going to hit them and they will know they are in love.

  What are some of the differences between love and infatuation? 1) Genuine love is more likely to involve a process of "growing" in love rather than "falling" in love. This may sound terribly unromantic to some who are used to hearing talk about "falling in love" or being "head over heels in love". This "falling" is often infatuation, and the sheer emotion of "falling31 in love often blinds a person to the imperfections of the loved one. We tend to think of the loved one as "perfect", "ideal", or some other divine image. Real love sees the total person—both the "perfection" and the imperfection. Infatuation, then, is a sudden, emotional sense that one has discovered the "perfect" lover. On the other hand, love realizes imperfections and grows with the acceptance of those imperfections.

  2) Love leads a person to a feeling of security and trust in the loved one. It usually

  involves a feeling of mutual benefit arising from the new relationship. "We are able to

  solve our problems together" is the feeling of love, rather than 'Please love me because

  I need you."

  3) Infatuation often entails feelings of insecurity whenever the "lovers" are

  separated: feelings of doubt, fickleness, uncertainty, and fear of loss often accompany

  Infatuation. "What will I do if I lose him?" and "1 wonder if she really means it when

  she says she loves me?" express the feelings of infatuation, in such a setting a lasting

  love does not have a chance to develop.

  41 Infatuation tends to be more manipulative than love because a lasting feel inn of relationship probably has not developed, so that the individuals are still concerned mainly about their own needs and satisfactions. Conversely, in love, the feeling of relationship is genuine and sincere so that concern for the other person evolves naturally.

  5) Physical attraction is an important part of both infatuation and love, but the superficial attraction is less important in love, for the couple experiencing Jove usually will build their relationship on a broader base than mere physical attraction.

  PART VI WRITING (40 minutes, 15 points)

  Directions: Write an essay of no less than 200 words on the topic given below Use (he proper space on your Answer Sheet II.

  TOPIC

  Good management can help the organization achieve its desired results. This is particularly true of the management of an organization full of scientists and research workers. What is your idea about a good management or a good manager of such a group of people?



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